Carboxylic Acid and Derivatives

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Carboxylic Acid and Derivatives

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Content

● Carboxylic acids (exemplified by ethanoic acid and benzoic acid)

(i) formation from primary alcohols and nitriles

(ii) salt, ester and acyl chloride formation

● Acyl chlorides (exemplified by ethanoyl chloride)

(i) ease of hydrolysis compared with alkyl and aryl chlorides

(ii) reaction with alcohols, phenols and primary amines

● Esters (exemplified by ethyl ethanoate and phenyl benzoate)

(i) formation from carboxylic acids and from acyl chlorides

(ii) hydrolysis (under acidic and under basic conditions)

Learning Outcomes

Candidates should be able to:

(a) describe the formation of carboxylic acids from alcohols, aldehydes and nitriles

(b) describe the reactions of carboxylic acids in the formation of:

(i) salts

(ii) esters on condensation with alcohols, using ethyl ethanoate as an example

(iii) acyl chlorides, using ethanoyl chloride as an example

(iv) primary alcohols, via reduction with lithium aluminium hydride, using ethanol as an example

(c) explain the acidity of carboxylic acids and of chlorine-substituted ethanoic acids in terms of their structures

(d) describe the hydrolysis of acyl chlorides

(e) describe the condensation reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols, phenols and primary amines

(f) explain the relative ease of hydrolysis of acyl chlorides, alkyl chlorides and aryl chlorides

27 9729 CHEMISTRY GCE ADVANCED LEVEL H2 SYLLABUS (2021)

(g) describe the formation of esters from the condensation reaction of acyl chlorides, using phenyl benzoate as an example

(h) describe the acid and base hydrolysis of esters